If you are able to make use of words like fetish, leather, rubber or uniform and you are gay, here is the right site for you.
The Leather Club Dresden is a non-commercial association offering a place where gay men can meet in Saxony. It has got its own location where our members and their guests act out their feelings of wearing the fetish they like the most. Our location, the “Bunker – Das Original!”, has much space for all kinds of gathering of gay men. You can play out your fantasies there. Some special events take place on Saturdays and Sundays, see Events. We like wearing a special fethish on this occasion. Newcomers are warmly invited to come to see us on Fridays. This day is always free of any dress code.
All blokes from Dresden and from other parts of Germany and all over the world can become a supporting member of our association for one night. After paying this membership fee of € 2.50, you can use all of our rooms.
We will be happy to see you and hope you will always enjoy your stay. Have fun!
These 14 photos tell a story of life post „don’t ask, don’t tell.“
Before „don’t ask, don’t tell“ was officially repealed for gay, lesbian, and bisexual military personnel in 2011, a photo of a male Marine in drag could have landed him in hot water. Today, we can celebrate the diversity of those brave enough to take up the call to serve in the military, while living the life most authentic to them.
Last November, photographer Devin Mitchell unveiled a photo series documenting the lives of service members. Since then, Mitchell has photographed even more veterans for The Veteran Vision Project. The images spotlight veterans, occasionally revealing the stark contrast between their lives in and out of uniform.
„One photo that really speaks to me the most is the picture depicting Joshua Zitting and his husband Patrick Lehmann,“ Mitchell Mic last November. „It reminds me of how unfair it is that this man can serve while enjoying all of this constitutional rights as an American, while other men and women similar to him cannot in other parts of the country, due in part to recent decisions such as the one made by circuit judge Jeffrey Sutton [who upheld same-sex marriage bans in Michigan, Kentucky, Ohio and Tennessee]. Judges like him are blind in my eyes. Maybe pictures like this will help him see better.“
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual military personnel had been serving our country for decades without receiving equal protection, while transgender troops are still prohibited from serving openly. While, as many speculate, marriage equality may be the law of the land come this June, there is still plenty of work to be done to truly accept and integrate all LGBT service members. Mitchell says he hopes this photo series will put a face to the LGBT people who tirelessly serve our country.
„As a gay man, I can relate to what is still the oppressive stigma of homosexuality. Legislation is just the beginning of a long sociological process to acceptance,“ Mitchell tells The Advocate. „The subjects featured in this project might be an example of such development in our communities. Images such as these would have been unprecedented before December 2010. Perhaps a century from now history students will look back and commemorate the turn of the tide.“
The Advocate exclusively obtained 14 more photos from Mitchell’s series that show LGBT military personnel after the dismantling of the „don’t ask, don’t tell“ policy.
I Thought I Could Serve as an Openly Gay Man in the Army. Then Came the Death Threats.
The sergeant and I stared at each other for a moment as the office door shut. I’m certain the expression on my face mirrored the pale, shaken one I saw on his. Only seconds earlier, we both stood silent, hands clasped behind our backs respectfully, as a noncommissioned officer stood inches from my face and threatened to end my career.
As we left the office, the sergeant searched for something consolatory to say. His words, and any comfort I might have taken from them, fell flat. I sat, staring at my computer screen, trying to recall what task I had been working on. A few hours later, Lt. Meghan Kalliavas would stop by and explain: The noncommissioned officer was the head of the unit’s Sexual Harassment/Assault Response and Prevention program. The evening before, there had been a report of a male-on-male sexual assault in our unit. In response, and apparently to demonstrate his competency in his assigned position, the noncommissioned officer had taken it upon himself to approach the person he considered inclined toward committing a similar offense in the future: me, the only openly gay soldier in my unit.
I was fortunate that Kalliavas, the officer in charge of the intelligence department where I worked, was a woman with no tolerance for prejudice. Together we approached our unit’s leadership, where she insisted that the comments had stemmed from the representative’s own homophobic feelings and recommended that he be reprimanded and removed from his position as the unit’s sexual harassment watchdog. We never learned whether any action was ever taken against him.
This wasn’t the first time at the Second Battalion, 87th Infantry that I was targeted because of my sexuality, and a part of me marveled that it could still make my hands shake and stomach clench. I told myself that I should have built a thicker skin at this point; that in comparison to the life-or-death hardships of military life, these moments meant nothing. But by then it was hard to ignore the anxiety I felt during required social activities — “mandatory fun,” as it’s called in the military — or the tension from my fellow soldiers.
The moment I decided to become a soldier and the moment I chose to live openly as a gay man occurred so closely in time that it’s hard to remember which came first. In early 2011, I was 19 and visiting my uncle, Senior Chief Petty Officer Brandon Parry, and his family on a naval base in Naples, Italy. It was with his guidance that I enlisted as an intelligence analyst in the United States Army and with his encouragement that I came out, first to him and then to the rest of my family and friends.
Before the end of May 2011, just before I left for basic combat training, my uncle sent me to Chicago to meet his two best friends and fellow sailors, Mike Landry and Abraham Elizondo. It was still four months before the repeal of “don’t ask, don’t tell,” a double-edged policy prohibiting asking any service member about his or her sexuality while enforcing a ban on openly gay service members. Mike and Abe were to mentor me on how to survive as a gay serviceman. Their lessons advocated a combination of caution and performance.
They lived together, along with Mike’s partner, Larry Hall, in a condominium just off the Wilson stop on the Red Line. Each had something to say about my upcoming service, each offering a different pot of paint to camouflage me into the background of my fellow soldiers. Abe — who had been a senior paralegal during his 20-year service — approached everything with a simple philosophy: Prove it. As long as gay soldiers kept their mouths shut, the burden of proof fell on those making the accusations. Mike, a former chief warrant officer turned military housing director, alternated between agreeing with Abe and interjecting stories about his experiences: “Yep, and he only called me a faggot once. One time, and I gave that little shit the boots. That’s what you’ve got to do. You can’t let anyone call you a fag. Because it’ll just get worse.” Even Larry, a skateboarding tech guru, chimed in, reminding me that the repeal of “don’t ask, don’t tell” wasn’t far-off.
For the next eight months, I all but ignored their advice. During basic training at Fort Jackson in South Carolina, I confessed to my bunkmate Aaron Frick — a tall white Coloradan who converted to Hinduism sometime before enlisting — that the picture of the guy in my locker wasn’t of a friend. Frick wasn’t terribly surprised by this news. He would go on to be my roommate and best friend during our next stage of training. On Sept. 20, 2011, “don’t ask, don’t tell” was repealed, and I immediately stopped concealing my sexuality. I openly used the word “boyfriend” when describing my partner, never worrying that any of my superiors or classmates cared. I was surrounded by driven women and men focused on their careers and on forging close relationships with their peers. I wondered at how things could have changed so drastically from the time Mike and Abe had served.
The second week after I arrived at Fort Drum, N.Y. — my first and only duty station with the Army — I found death threats slipped under the door of my barracks room. I noticed the colors first. Pink, blue and yellow; strangely happy colors at odds with the words written on them. Some were simple: slurs and epithets written in thick black Sharpie, pressed so hard into the paper that it bled through. “Faggot” and “queer fag,” the notes read. A couple were more elaborate: detailed descriptions of what might happen to me if I was caught alone, and proclamations about the wrongness of gays in the military.
I read the most detailed descriptions over again, trying to explain them away as something other than what they were. Maybe they were a joke, or meant for someone else. I reached for my phone and then stopped. If I reported these and they were only a joke, then I would become “that guy.” Taking ridicule — smiling at the most vile and offensive slights with the understanding that they were nothing more than jokes — is the most important social capital in the military. Was I willing to risk losing that capital before I had the chance to earn it? I tore the bright sticky notes into confetti and tossed them into the trash.
The military is built on a foundation of earning trust and proving yourself to your peers and superiors as capable. Being new to a unit isn’t unlike being a new employee at any other job. People are cautious, even wary, until you’ve shown you can handle the work. Perhaps it didn’t help that I was an intelligence analyst in an infantryman’s world — a support soldier in a combat soldier’s unit. But none of that had been mentioned in the notes. My capability wasn’t in question, nor was my duty position. It wasn’t my effectiveness or value to the unit that elicited these noxious notes but something far removed from my control. Something that after September 2011 was supposed to be meaningless.
After a few months at Fort Drum, I discovered a group that convened for secret support meetings. No two people were similar — a woman who had been in the service nearly as long as I had been alive, a married father, an infantry soldier a rank below me. Each person identified as something other than heterosexual, but only privately. In their everyday lives, they pretended to be straight. We met in different places — in barracks rooms and offices after hours — but always in secret. Sometimes it was to console or commiserate. Other times I think it was to simply know that we weren’t alone.
During these meetings I always talked about my anxiety over not knowing who had written those sticky notes and if they were standing next to me in formation or would be the person I sat beside, alone, on my next 24-hour shift. The others revealed truths I considered much darker than my own: The woman spoke about the sexual assault she never reported during the time of “don’t ask, don’t tell” for fear that an investigation would unveil that she was a lesbian; the husband spoke about feeling trapped but fearing that revealing himself would cost him everything; and the infantryman confessed that he drank himself to sleep because he could never claim what he was aloud. At least I hadn’t had to endure any of their horrors, I would think. Remembering this was sometimes helpful — as if I were seeing things with greater perspective, finding the silver lining. Other times it made me nearly sick with shame to compare my fears with theirs. But I never stopped going.
I left the Army in December 2014, but I still feel as if I am coming to terms with my identity. There are moments when it feels wrong to claim my status as a veteran; as if being gay made me less of a soldier and somehow invalidated my service. These moments of vulnerability bring me back to when one of my superiors told me not to bring a date to the military ball; to when I found “Fag” spelled out in the snow on my windshield with urine; to all the times I avoided those who showed me compassion, for fear that it was a trick and that they had been the one to slip the notes beneath my door. Every memory evokes an emotion: rage that I had to serve with a constant sense of fear of my fellow soldiers; paralyzing sadness for those who endured abuses worse than I can know; and, the worst, guilt over the service members — gay or straight or transgender — who died while serving in the military while my body is still whole.
I don’t know if these feelings will ever go away. But it is when the guilt is most crippling that I remember my support group. That chance to share an unseen pain and know there were others like me struggling each day still helps me wake up each morning, pull on my boots and go about my day.
Policies Concerning LGBTQ+ People in the US Military
Throughout its history, the U.S. Military has had an inconsistent policy when it comes to gay people in the military. Prior to World War II, there was no written policy barring LGBTQ+ people from serving, although any type of sodomy, regardless of sexual orientation, was considered a crime by military law, and this was frequently used to bar members of the LGBTQ+ community from serving.
The Greek view on gay warriors
The Thebans believed gay warriors fought better in order to impress and protect their lovers. If a lover fell during a battle, his partner would fight even harder to avenge his death.
Three thousand years ago in Ancient Greece, being gay or lesbian was not a crime. In fact, in certain situations, the Greeks even encouraged homosexual relationships.
Young boys exchanged romantic favors for the knowledge provided by their older tutors. Fathers would pray to the gods for their sons to be attractive because it meant a better mentor. Such relationships lasted until the young boys reached adulthood.
Soldiers would form romantic relationships with one another to boost their morale.
The Greek society differentiated between active and passive roles both genders took during sex. An active role, being a penetrator, meant masculinity, adulthood, and prestige. A passive role, being penetrated, represented feminity, youth, and shame.
For a receiving partner, anal sex was demeaning. Instead, they engaged in intercrural sex.
The members of the Sacred Band of Thebes were romantic partners. They called an older partner the erastes (‘lover’) and a younger one the eromenos (‘beloved’). Each pair exchanged sacred vows at the temple of Iolaus, the lover of Heracles.
Facts about the Sacred Band of Thebes
The Thebans established the Sacred Band of Thebes at the beginning of the 4th century BC. It was a unit of 300 gay warriors. Their leader handpicked members based on their skill and athletic ability.
They were full-time professionals. The city-state of Thebes would supply and train them. Each man had a cuirass, a helm, greaves, and a shield. Their primary weapons were a four meters long spear and a sword.
Their training included wrestling and dance. In battle, they served as shock troops, aiming to kill enemy leaders.
The battles involving the Sacred Band of Thebes
The city-state of Sparta was a winner of the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC). After the war, they dominated the Greek world. Thebes challenged the supremacy of Sparta, starting the Theban–Spartan War (378–362 BC). Because of brilliant military tactics and the Sacred Band, the Thebans were able to defeat Sparta.
During the conflict, two major battles happened. The Battle of Tegyra and the Battle of Leuctra. The Battle of Tegyra, in 375 BC, was the first time that the Spartans lost despite having a bigger army: 300 warriors of the Sacred Band routed 1.800 Spartan soldiers.
At the Battle of Leuctra, in 371 BC, Thebes fought with a force of 7.500 soldiers against 12.000 Spartans.
The Sacred Band hacked through the elite units of the Spartan army. They killed 1.000 of their most experienced soldiers, including the Spartan king: Sparta asked for a truce.
From then on, the Ancient Greeks considered these gay warriors invincible. The total Theban victory at the Battle of Leuctra led to the decline of Sparta and to the dominance of Thebes.
The Sacred Band of Thebes met its end at the Battle of Chaeronea, in 338 BC. Phillip II of Macedon and his son Alexander the Great invaded central Greece. The Greek city-states led by Athens and Thebes fought back, but the Greek hoplites were no match against the Macedonian phalanx.
At the end of the battle, the Greeks fled the battlefield. The Sacred Band continued to fight, despite being surrounded and outnumbered. All 300 men died fighting for each other. Their leader Theagenes fell last, trying to protect the body of his dead lover.
Philip II cried when he saw the dead bodies of these elite warriors.
He knew the Sacred Band very well. Thirty years before the Battle of Chaeronea, Philip II was a hostage in Thebes. During that time he became the eromenos (‘beloved’) of Pelopidas, the commander of the Sacred Band. The Sacred Band served as a model for the reformation of the Macedonian army.
The Macedonians destroyed the city of Thebes in 335 BC.
The famous philosopher Plato gave the idea to form an army from gay couples. He observed homosexual couples exhibiting total devotion to each other. They fought with ferocity and courage.
The modern ‘don’t ask, don’t tell’ policy on the military service by gay men didn’t apply to the Greeks.
After the destruction of the Sacred Band of Thebes, there was no other case of a gay army in history.
Gay Army is by far the most entertaining and hilarious reality TV show I have ever seen! The cast is amazing, the Drill Instructor is fantastic and each episode seems like a feature film, pure epic! From the opening titles it explodes onto the TV screen, and you think, is this for real?! To be honest I didn’t care, as I was laughing so much! Why aren’t there more shows like this around, it makes turning the TV on worth it, instead of all those shows that are like background music and send me to reality programmes bore me to tears but this one just had it all! I cant wait wait to see a US or UK version, it would be a blast!!! Roll on Gay Army 2
Gay military men are diamonds in the rough.
Gay Military men do it best – for real! That’s not to say that straight guys serving our country don’t know what they’re doing so please don’t misunderstand me.
But as a guy who has been around awhile, I’m here to tell you that the gay men in our armed forces know how to handle any situation, particularly when it comes to love, sex and romance.
I should know – I’m a former member of the U.S Army and served four years.
Given the nature of this site, I decided to come up with 10 great reasons you should be setting your sites on gay guys in the military.
And so if you’re in a dating rut, stop wasting your time on the apps and head on over to Out Military on Facebook.
There’s plenty of single, hot men that are just waiting to meet you!
What follows are 10 solid reasons why gay military men do it best and why you need to start dating one now!
1. We’re super caring
Most people in the military are good listeners but gay men in uniform are particularly skilled in this area. That’s because we many of us know how to empathize with others who are in a place of pain.
We’ve seen human suffering at its worst; we know the importance of kindness.
2. We’re protective
If you want a boyfriend who will protect you from the idiots and jerks of the word, you can’t go wrong with a gay military guy.
Most of us are protective by nature and our training only amplifies this instinct. And yes – we tend to be territorial but not in a bad way.
3. On time – all the time
Sick of flakey guys who show up late for planned get-togethers? When you date a gay guy in the service, that’s likely never going to happen.
In fact, most of us show up at the appointed time and place with military precision!
4. Great in bed
One of the biggest benefits of dating someone gay in the military is bedroom time. Here’s why – most of us view the experience as a mission of pleasure.
We know exactly where your erotic zones are and more importantly, where they aren’t. Plus, we have great stamina!
5. Well disciplined
If you need structure in your life, look no further. Dating a man in uniform is a surefire way to guarantee everything happens exactly as planned.
It’s just our way of life and when you date one of us, it will become yours too!
6. Old fashioned romantic
We gay military men are old school when it comes to romance. That’s because like all people in the armed forces, we’ve learned to show our affection in not so subtle ways.
If you’re pining for a guy who likes to take it slow and easy, gay men in the service is your best bet! And contrary to popular belief, there’s nothing vanilla about us!
9. We’re physically strong
To a fault, most military men are strong and this is particularly true of gay service members. That’s because we are required (for the most part) to take care of our bodies and be ready for battle at a moment’s notice.
If you are looking for a fit gay guy, look no further than the military.
Summing It Up
I realize that not every single trait here applies to every single gay guy in the military. But on the whole, it’s safe to say that most of them do.
So the next time you start feeling blue because you’re still a single gay man, remember there are tons of guys in our armed forces who are just waiting to meet you!
Editorial note: MV would like to thank all who serve in the United States military. We owe you a debt of gratitude that can truly never be repaid.
Homosexuality and the Spartans
Perhaps the best part of this era was that homosexuality wasn’t considered a “sin”. In fact, man on man action among military members was commonplace – and encouraged.
Remember, this was well before Christianity was born and at a time when human sexuality wasn’t viewed through the lens of judgment it is today.
Located in Southern Greece, directly along the Peloponnese peninsula, this ancient society was built on two important concepts: 1) loyalty to the state and; 2) military service.
Researchers tell us once a man turned 20-years old, he was eligible to enlist in the Spartan army. But here is the thing. They were almost always single. That’s because men were forbidden to marry until they turned 30.
Historians aren’t sure why this rule existed, but many believe ancient leaders didn’t want their fighters to be burdened with families.
In some ways this makes sense. It’s kind of hard to wield a sword against your enemies if your head is somewhere else.
Because they were unable to have marital relations with women, many Spartan men would get their sexual needs met with fellow soldiers.
Think about it. When you were 20-years old, weren’t you horned up like a dog? Well, it was no different for members of the Spartan army.
And here is the thing – the military ethos of ancient Greece and Rome encouraged homosexual acts between fighters. The reason is that leadership believed man on man sex strengthened warrior bonds.
In other words, you were more likely to trust your fellow soldiers and fight harder to protect them when you shared a strong relationship.
Part of this bonding process meant letting other warriors pound you out like a jackrabbit. While this may sound fun, it’s important to remember that the guys doing the drilling were monstrous hulks.
We know this because from the age of 7 until 20, males physically prepared their bodies for entrance into the military.
Only the most muscular and hung were let in. Yes, you read that right, hung – not unlike requirements for the gladiators.
We’re talking about monstrous men with massive biceps, huge pecs, and gigantic wangs. The reason “gigantic” was favored is because men who measured 8 or more were considered natural warriors by the Gods.
Can you imagine all of that massive Mediterranean meat flopping around?
If you wanted to get in good with your fellow soldiers, you had to partake in the male bonding experience. This meant letting guys drill on you until they made a deposit.
And yes, it worked the other way around. You would also have to top them as a way of gaining closeness.
Sure, there were probably group rituals that took place, similar to what the Romans did with spectator driven swallowing. But the rationale was the same – to strengthen care and comradery among the fighters.
Sparta would eventually fall from power after being sacked by the Visigoths around 400 A.D. But their memory remains forever engrained in the hearts and minds of people everywhere.
While these mighty soldiers are often remembered for their strength and courage, we must remember that much of their success was directly related to the bonding rituals that took place among fighters.
Unlike today, gay sex wasn’t frowned upon – including going bareback. Wouldn’t you like to have been a Spartan warrior? Learn more about homosexuality and ancient Greece here.
LGBTQ+ Policies in the Korean War and Vietnam War
During World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War, the military considered anyone that identified as part of the LGBTQ+ community to have a mental defect and officially barred them from serving based on medical criteria. However, when personnel needs increased due to combat, the military developed a habit of relaxing its screening criteria. Many gay people were admitted and served honorably during these conflicts.
This did not eliminate discrimination, however, and these periods were relatively short-lived. As soon as the need for combat personnel decreased, the military would involuntarily discharge them.
1982—A Military Ban on Homosexuality
It wasn’t until 1982 that the Department of Defense (DOD) officially put in writing that “homosexuality was incompatible with military service,” when it published a DOD directive stating such. It defined a homosexual person as someone „regardless of sex, who, engages in, desires to engage in, or intends to engage in homosexual acts.” And it defined a homosexual act as any “bodily contact, actively undertaken or passively permitted, between members of the same sex for the purpose of satisfying sexual desires.”
According to a 1992 report by the Government Accounting Office, nearly 17,000 men and women were discharged under this new directive during the 1980s.
1993—The Birth of „Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell“
By the end of the 1980s, reversing the military’s policy was emerging as a priority for advocates of LGBTQ+ civil rights. Several lesbian and gay members of the military came out publicly and vigorously challenged their discharges through the legal system. By the beginning of 1993, it appeared that the military’s ban on gay personnel would soon be overturned.
President Clinton announced that he intended to keep his campaign promise by eliminating military discrimination based on sexual orientation. But, this didn’t sit well with the Republican-controlled Congress. Congressional leaders threatened to pass legislation that would bar gay people from serving if Clinton issued an executive order changing the policy.
After lengthy public debate and congressional hearings, the President and Senator Sam Nunn, chair of the Senate Armed Services Committee, reached a compromise, which they labeled „Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell“ (DADT).
Under its terms, military personnel would not be asked about their sexual orientation and would not be discharged simply for being gay. However, having sexual relations with or displaying romantic overtures to members of the same sex, or telling anyone about their sexual orientation was considered „homosexual conduct“ under the policy and a basis for involuntary discharge. This is was known as the Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell law and became the DOD policy.
Changing Times for Society and the Military
At the time, most military leaders and young enlisted (who were forced to live in the barracks with a roommate) took a conservative view about allowing gay people and other members of the LGBTQ+ community to serve openly in the military.
But the attitudes of society gradually changed through the next two decades. By 2010, more junior enlisted members‘ attitudes had changed, and they would not be bothered by serving with those they know to be gay. Furthermore, more service members, like those in general society, felt that discrimination against LGBTQ+ groups was unfair.
2010—Repeal of DADT
In December of 2010, the House and Senate voted to repeal and overturn DADT. President Obama then signed the Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell Repeal Act into law December 22, 2010. The nation decided that by September 20, 2011, gay service members would no longer fear discharge from the military by admitting to their sexual preference—they could serve openly.
More than 13,000 service members were discharged for being gay while the DADT policy was in effect. The repeal prompted many to try and reenlist. Many gay and bisexual service members who had been serving came out of the closet on various media. Many organizations and groups supporting gay military members surfaced and even organized official public gatherings with the military.
2013—Recognition of Same-Sex Marriages
Although the repeal of DADT in 2010 made it possible for gay people to serve openly without fear of discharge, the new law still did not extend many of the benefits that straight members received to gay service members. These included things such as dependent health care benefits and housing allowances.
Following the Supreme Court ruling that struck down the Defense of Marriage Act in 2013, the DOD announced it would extend spousal and family benefits for same-sex marriages that would be the same as those given for traditional marriages.
In recent years, the battle over equal rights in the military has shifted toward transgender issues. Until 2016, there was an outright ban on any transgendered service members across all branches of the military.
This changed on July 1, 2016, when the Obama administration announced that this ban would be lifted. The new policy would allow transgender individuals with no history of gender dysphoria, a condition in which someone experiences intense psychological discomfort with their biological sex, to serve while adhering to standards for their biological sex. Those with a history of gender dysphoria could transition and serve according to their preferred gender after 18 months in stable condition post-transition.
In 2018, the DOD reversed these changes under the Trump administration, effectively barring transgender members who were not willing and able to serve according to their biological sex. Members who were admitted during the period of the previous policy were allowed to remain and serve under those standards. President Biden reversed these changes by executive order during his first days in office in January 2021.
The Sacred Band of Thebes defeated even the Spartans
The Sacred Band was an elite military unit from Thebes comprising 150 gay couples. At the Battle of Leuctra in 371 BC, these 300 gay warriors led the Theban army against the Spartan army. The Thebans won and shattered the Spartan control of Greece.
RAND Corporation. „Sexual Orientation and U.S. Military Personnel Policy: Options and Assessment,“ Page 3. Accessed Feb. 9, 2021.
RAND Corporation. „Sexual Orientation and U.S. Military Personnel Policy: Options and Assessment,“ Pages 4–6. Accessed Feb. 9, 2021.
United States General Accounting Office. „Defense Force Management: DOD’s Policy on Homosexuality,“ Pages 2–4. Accessed Feb. 9, 2021.
Congressional Research Service. “’Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell‘: A Legal Analysis,“ Summary. Accessed Feb. 9, 2021.
RAND Corporation. „Gays in the Military: New Facts Conquer Old Taboos.“ Accessed Feb. 9, 2021.
Congressional Research Service. “’Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell‘: A Legal Analysis,“ Pages 2–3. Accessed Feb. 9, 2021.
Congressional Research Service. “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell”: The Law and Military Policy on Same-Sex Behavior,“ Pages 12–13. Accessed Feb. 9, 2021.
RAND Corporation. „A Year After Repeal of Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell.“ Accessed Feb. 9, 2021.
Center for American Progress. „The Repeal of Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell—1 Year Later.“ Accessed Feb. 9, 2021.
Secretary of Defense. „Memorandum for Secretaries of the Military Departments Acting Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness.“ Accessed Feb. 9, 2021.
U.S. Department of Defense. „Department of Defense Transgender Policy (Archive).“ Accessed Feb. 9, 2021.
U.S. Department of Defense. „5 Things to Know About DOD’s New Policy on Military Service by Transgender Persons and Persons With Gender Dysphoria.“ Accessed Feb. 9, 2021.
The White House. „Executive Order on Enabling All Qualified Americans to Serve Their Country in Uniform.“ Accessed Feb. 9, 2021.